Airway, Respiration & Ventilation
Cardiology & Resuscitation
EMS Operations

3.02 Cardiac Anatomy

The structure of the heart is what allows the heart to function effectively and efficiently. Understanding the anatomy of the heart is the basis for understanding how the heart functions in pumping blood throughout the entire body to deliver oxygen to the tissues of the body. This then allows us to make sense of what is occurring when the heart is not functioning properly. This module covers the basic anatomy of the heart including its chambers, valves, and blood supply. 

Learning objectives

By the end of this module, you should be able to…

  • Identify the four chambers of the heart as well as the valves that connect them 
  • Follow the route the blood takes through the heart 
  • Identify and name the types of vessels that carry blood to and from the heart 
  • Identify the layers of the heart muscle tissue 
  • List the blood vessels that carry oxygen to the heart muscle itself and what parts of the heart they supply 

High Yield Content

  • Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid and bicuspid 
  • The bicuspid valve also called the mitral valve
  • Semilunar valves: aortic and pulmonic 
  • Valves open when papillary muscles contract and pull on the chordae tendineae 
  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to the heart. (pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood and pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood)
  • The diaphragm is the point where the descending thoracic aorta becomes the descending abdominal aorta 
  • Left coronary artery branches into LAD and circumflex
  • Right coronary artery branches into posterior descending and marginal arteries